The Special Publication 23 "Limits of Oceans and Seas" was published by the IHB in 1929 to define names and limits of seas and to use for the safe navigation and hydrography and oceanographic usage.
The publication of S-23 was based on the resolution, adopted in the first International Hydrographic Conference in London, 1919, which mentioned that names and limits of sea and oceans should be defined for the safe navigation. In the Conference, Korean government could not participate because it was under the Japanese Imperialism though the participation of Japan. According to the Resolution, the name "Sea of Japan" was registered in 1923 and the name also was adopted in 1929. After the publication of S-23, map-makers all of the world have used the publication when they produce maps and charts.
Since the first edition of S-23, the name "Sea of Japan" has been used until the 3rd edition published in 1953 when the Republic of Korea was not a member state of the IHO. After long usage of S-23, it was decided that new edition of S-23 should be produced in the 11th International Hydrographic Conference, 1977, and the Bureau made a draft 4th edition and circulated the draft to the all member states in 1986. However, it was not adopted.
After long preparation of new edtion of the S-23, the IHB circulated a new draft of the 4th edition of S-23 in August 2002. There were various changes for instance the name of the publication was changed from "Limits of Oceans and Seas" to "Names and Limits of Oceans and Seas", and 60 seas were given new names. However, the publication have not included the area and left as a blank page.
The IHB suddenly withdrew the draft 40 days after the circulation to the member states due to various problems.